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22个常见饮食误区!

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2011-09-13  浏览次数:3133
核心提示:在饮食上,很多常识上我们认为对的事情,细细分析一下,却不那么科学了。


Best-selling author Michael Pollan became famous telling us that to eat healthy is to eat simply—just like our grandmothers did. Problem is, Grandma didn’t live in the Information Age, the age of the 25,000-product supermarket, Dietary Guidelines, and all those superfood health claims. It should be simple. But it really isn’t—not with this much daily nutrition noise to contend with.
畅销书作家迈克尔•波兰(Michael Pollan)现在名声大振,他告诉我们:吃得健康就是吃得简单——就像我们祖先那样。问题是,我们的祖先并没有生活在这个信息年代。这是一个超级市场中有2万5千种食品的年代,到处是饮食指南、还有那些超级食品的健康宣言。吃饭,本应该是简单的事,可现在,确实也简单不了——尤其是在这种情形之下:时刻需要应付大量营养计划的“聒噪之音”。

Consider nutrition science, flip-flopping over the humble egg: villainized as an artery-clogging cholesterol bomb in the 1980s, now a centerpiece of the healthy breakfast (or dinner) plate while activists focus on the well-being of the chickens.
翻弄着不起眼的鸡蛋,思考一下所谓的营养科学:在20世纪80年代,鸡蛋被当成胆固醇炸弹,是引起动脉阻塞的罪魁祸首;现在却是健康早餐(晚餐)盘中的必备食品,而社会活动家们也积极地关注鸡们的福利问题,好让它们多产蛋。

Pollan is right, mostly: The basic rules of healthy eating are simple. But diet is also in the details, as our 22 nutrition mistakes illustrate. In the crazy modern food world, you want to keep your eye on the big picture, but pay attention to the small print, too.
当然,波兰大部分还是对的:健康饮食的基本原则就是是简单。但是饮食也需要注重细节,正如我们的22个饮食误区所列举的那样。在这个疯狂的食品世界里,你总想从大处着眼,但也需要注意一下细小之处。

1. You pick brown eggs over less-nutritious white.
挑红壳鸡蛋而不是“少营养的”白壳鸡蛋

Result: Up to a 25% price premium paid for what is, basically, an aesthetic choice
结果:比买白壳鸡蛋多付25%的钱,基本上,这就是个人的审美选择。

Even in the era of fancy omega-3 eggs, brown eggs retain a certain rustic allure. But a large brown egg contains the exact same proportion of white and yolk, and the same nutrients, as a white egg. Brown eggs simply come from a different breed of hens, which are often bigger birds and require more feed than standard white-egg-laying hens. Those costs are usually passed on, adding to brown eggs’ “specialness.”
即使在个盛行吃优质Ω-3鸡蛋的时代里,红壳鸡蛋依旧保留着它质朴的诱惑力。但是一只大的红壳鸡蛋所含蛋清、蛋黄的比例和营养成分,与一只白壳鸡蛋完全相同。红壳鸡蛋只是由于蛋鸡品种的不同,它们通常长得较大,比普通产白壳鸡蛋的母鸡吃更多的饲料。这些花费往往会转计到成本里,所以红壳鸡蛋贵,人们感觉它特别一些。

What to do: Choose by wallet or style sensibility; either way, you’ll pick a good egg.
解决方法:根据自己的钱包来选择,或按照自己审美风格来选;或者两种方法都不用,只挑好的鸡蛋拿。

2. You drink soy milk for the calcium, but you don’t shake it.
补钙喝豆奶,喝前却从不摇一摇。

Result:
When sludge forms at the bottom of the carton, you toss it—and a whole lot of good-for-you calcium goes down the drain.
结果:盒子底部形成了大量的深沉物,你就把它扔了——一大堆对你有益的钙也进了下水道。

Calcium added to soy milk is good for bones. But it tends to settle and then can be quite tough to redistribute into the milk. According to a study from Creighton University in Nebraska, fortified soy milks may deliver only 25% to 79% of the promised calcium, depending on the type used and the way it’s added. In cow’s milk, calcium is naturally suspended throughout the liquid.
豆奶中添加的钙对骨骼非常有益。但它容易沉淀,然后再让它重新溶回到豆奶里相当困难。根据内布拉斯加州、克瑞顿大学的一项研究,加钙的强化豆奶只能释放所加钙量的25%到79%,这取决于钙加入的形式和添加的方法。在牛奶中,钙会很自然地悬溶于整个液体之中。

What to do: Shake that soy milk each time. And consume calcium from a variety of sources to get the full amount you need daily: 1,000 to 1,200mg.
解决方法:每次喝之前都要摇一摇豆奶。通过多种途径来获取每日所需钙的总量:1000到1200毫克。

3. You favor peanut butter fortified with omega-3s to get your share of those good fats.
你最喜欢的花生酱里加入了Ω-3脂肪酸,让你获取那些有益的脂肪。

Result:
Good idea, but you’re probably not getting as much omega-3s as you may think.
结果:主意不错,但也许你获取不到你认为应该获取的那么多Ω-3脂肪酸。

Fortification of foods is sometimes good but also marketed a bit ... enthusiastically. You’d have to eat 1 cup of that peanut butter to equal the amount of omega-3s in a single serving of salmon—a whopping 1,520 calories versus about 200 calories in a 4-ounce piece of fish.
强化食品有时挺好的,但是市场宣传上有些......过火了。你必须吃上一杯的花生酱,才能获得与一份鲑鱼等量的Ω-3脂肪酸——这可是高达1520卡路里的热量,而那份2两多一点的鲑鱼肉只含200卡路里的热量。

What to do: Enjoy the PB, but favor the fish.
解决方法:偶尔享用一点花生酱,但多吃鱼。

4. You trade ground turkey for ground beef in recipes to save sat fat.
为了减少饱和脂肪的摄入,把食谱里的火鸡肉馅替换为牛肉馅。

Result:
Unless you’re careful, not much savings over lean beef.
结果:除非你很小心,否则饱和脂肪的摄取并不比瘦牛肉少多少。

Turkey breast is lean, but dark meat isn’t, and some ground turkey contains both. A quarter pound of regular ground turkey contains 3g sat fat. Compare that to only 2.5g in the same amount of sirloin. Turkey breast is lean, but dark meat isn’t, and some ground turkey contains both. A quarter pound of regular ground turkey contains 3g sat fat. Compare that to only 2.5g in the same amount of sirloin. Ground turkey breast, on the other hand, has just half a gram of sat fat, so the right cut of turkey is a significant fat-cutter.
火鸡的鸡胸肉很瘦,但鸡腿上的深色肉却不是,通常绞碎的火鸡肉馅两种都有。113克的火鸡肉馅含有3克的饱和脂肪,而等量牛的上腰肉只含2.5克。但另一方面,等量的火鸡鸡胸肉馅只含有0.5克的饱和脂肪,所以正确的切取火鸡肉,就是在切除脂肪。

What to do: Read the label; buy the lean
解决方法:看标签说明;买瘦肉

5. Watching your weight, you pull way back on snacking.
为了注意体重,取消了零食。

Result: Less weight-loss success, more hunger, fatigue
结果:没能成功减轻体重,却更饿、更疲劳

It’s a long stretch from a noontime lunch to a 7 p.m. dinner. Snacking helps manage hunger by keeping your metabolic engine running at a more constant pace. Any healthy-eating plan should allow for one or two snacks per day: something nutritious and satisfying.
从午饭时间到下午7点的晚餐,那可是漫长的一段时间。零食有助于应付饥饿感,让你的新陈代谢系统以更为恒定的速度运转。任何健康的饮食计划应该允许每天吃一到两次零食:吃一些有营养的和令人有满足感的食物。

What to snack on: Calcium-rich low-fat dairy foods, full-of-fiber nuts, or naturally sweet, low-calorie fruit.
该吃什么零食:含钙丰富的低脂奶制品、全纤维坚果类,或者自然甜的、低热量水果。

6. You’re on a veggie kick, boiling lots every night.
热衷吃素,每晚煮大量的蔬菜

Result: Vitamin-rich pot water
结果:富含维生素的锅底水扔掉

Dropping foods that are rich in water-soluble vitamins (like the Bs, C, folate) into cooking water leaches some of the vitamins. That’s fine for a soup or stew, less so if you’re draining the veggies. A Danish study found that boiled broccoli retained only 45% to 64% of its vitamin C after 5 minutes of boiling; steamed broccoli kept 83% to 100%.
把富含水溶维生素(如维生素B簇,维C和叶酸)的食物扔到开水里煮,会溶解出一些维生素。如果是喝汤或吃炖菜那没关系,但如果把煮的蔬菜沥干了吃,可就不太妙了。一项丹麦的研究发现,花椰菜水煮5分钟后,只能保留45%到64%的维生素C;而蒸花椰菜可以保留83%到100%。

What to do: Haul out that old steamer. Also good: microwaving.
解决方法:把你的旧蒸锅拖出来用吧;或微波蔬菜也不错。

7. You hanker for fast food. Grilled chicken beats beef burger.
酷爱快餐食品,认为烤鸡肉汉堡比牛肉汉堡要好。

Result:
Sodium city, and not necessarily much in the way of calorie savings, either
结果:那可是“钠盐仓库”,减少卡路里的摄取也不需要这么多盐

Sodium can soar in a chicken sandwich. The chicken breast may have been injected with a salty brine solution to help the meat stay moist. At Burger King, the Tendergrill Chicken sandwich has 1,100mg sodium, and 75% of that comes from the chicken itself. (A Whopper Jr. burger has half the sodium, little of it from the beef, and 130 fewer calories.)
鸡肉三明治里的钠盐可能会激增。因为,鸡胸肉里也许注入了盐水溶液,这样肉质才能松软水嫩,在汉堡王连琐店里的嫩烤鸡肉堡里含有1100毫克的钠盐,75%来自鸡肉本身。(而一个牛肉小皇堡只含一半的钠盐,牛肉本身几乎不含钠盐,并且热量较少,只有130卡路里。)

Lean chicken sometimes picks up salty toppings, like the bacon and cheese on the McDonald’s Premium Grilled Chicken Club. That baby has 1,410mg of sodium, 18% more than a Quarter Pounder with Cheese—and is not lower in calories.
有时选瘦鸡肉来做咸调味辅料,如麦当劳的特级板烧鸡总汇里的培根和乳酪。那个宝贝里含有1410毫的钠盐,比“足三两”大芝士汉堡高出18%——而且卡路里也不低。

What to do: You have a 2,300mg-per-day sodium budget. Take a minute to scan the restaurant’s nutrition data—online, in-store, or from a smart phone.
解决方法:你每天有2300毫克钠盐的“预算”。花点时间浏览一下餐馆里的食品营养成分表——通过互联网或者在店里或者用智能手机。

8. You leave your hot cereal eating ’til the weekend, when you can slow cook steel-cut oats.
有时间慢煮燕麦碎粒时,就把速溶麦片留到周末吃。

Result: You bypass one of the easiest ways to get whole-grain, fiber-rich goodness.
结果:你忽视了一种能得到富含纤维、全谷物营养佳品的最便捷的方法。

Turns out an oat is an oat is an oat, whether it’s steel cut from the original groat or rolled flat and even presteamed so that it will cook in 90 seconds rather than 15 minutes. Flattening and steaming does not remove whole-grain benefits, so you get all of the vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and oaty fiber. Yes, the steel-cut variety is nutty, chewy, and delicious, but instant is so darned weekday convenient.
事实证明,不管怎么加工,燕麦就是燕麦:无论是把最初去壳后的麦粒加工成碎粒,还是压成扁片,甚至是预蒸一下——这样你吃时只需煮90秒而不是15分钟。压扁或汽蒸并没有除掉全谷物的营养,所以你能得到所有的维生素、矿物质、抗氧化剂和燕麦纤维。当然了,那种燕麦碎粒像坚果一样,有嚼劲、口感好;但速溶麦片在日常生活中绝对方便快捷。

What to do: Embrace all oats. One caveat: Prepackaged flavored oats can contain a lot of added sugar and salt.
解决方法:欣然接受各种形式的燕麦。一个忠告:预先包装好的美味燕麦可能添加了大量的糖和盐。

9. You consider fruits like bananas and apples “free.”
认为像香蕉、苹果之类的水果可以随便享用

Result: You’re eating better—but may be taking in more calories than you think.
结果:你吃得很健康——但摄入的卡路里可能比你认为的要多。

Last year, Weight Watchers changed its famed point system to make fruit “free”: Dieters can eat as much as they want without eating into their precious daily points. WW’s rationale: It encourages eaters to swap in more healthy low-calorie foods. Fine print reality: Nothing with calories is really free.
去年,《 慧俪轻体》杂志修改了它著名的“棒点减肥法”,让水果“随便吃”:减肥者们可以随便吃水果,而不会吃进他们每天珍贵的“棒点数”。《 慧俪轻体》杂志的理论基础:鼓励食客们换成更健康的低卡路里食物吃。精美印刷品背后的现实是:没有什么东西是真正不含卡路里的。

We’re not dissing fruit. A nutrient-rich banana only has about 105 calories. An ounce of baked chips has about 120. Swapping one for the other is a good nutrition deal. But simply adding fruit will, in the long run, add up, calorie-wise.
我们并不是对水果有异议。一根营养丰富的香蕉只含大约105卡路里,而半两多的烤薯片约含120克的卡路里。交换一下,是一笔划算的营养交易。但从长远来看,只是单纯的多吃水果,卡路里同时也会增加。

What to do: Focus more on healthy food choices, less on calories, but be mindful that no food is “free.”
解决方法:更加注重对健康食品的选择,减少卡路里,但是当心:天下没有“免费”的食物——是食物吃了就得长肉。

10. You automatically swap turkey bacon for the pork kind.
下意识地就把火鸡腌肉换成猪肉腌肉

Result: Not always the hefty salt and fat savings you might expect.
结果:并不总是像你所期望地减少了大量盐与脂肪的摄入。

We’re not trying to pick on the poor old turkey here, but bacon is a prime example of why label-reading is important. Pork bacon comes in smoky, super-thick, fatty slabs but also in naturally leaner center-cut slices; the latter can contain as little as 60 calories, 1.5g sat fat, and 260mg sodium per slice.
我们可不是挑剔可怜的老火鸡,但腌肉却是一个最佳的例子——告诉我们,为什么读食物标签说明如此重要。猪肉腌肉是熏制超厚的、肥肉块,但也有一些是自然瘦的里脊肉薄片;后者每片的热量只有60卡路里和1.5克的饱和脂肪以及260毫克的钠盐。

Turkey bacon also wanders all over the nutrition map. A slice of Jennie-O’s ultra-lean version is a nutrition bargain, at 20 calories, 0g sat fat, and 120mg sodium. But others can contain the same sat fat as center-cut pork bacon—and even more sodium.
在营养地图里到处都有火鸡腌肉的痕迹。一片珍妮欧超瘦的火鸡腌肉是一笔划算营养买卖,含20克的卡路里,0克饱和脂肪,和120毫克的钠盐。但别的火鸡腌肉可能含有跟猪里脊腌肉一样的饱和脂肪——甚至含更多的钠盐。

What to do: If you like pork, choose a lean, high-flavor cut. If you need less fat, find a lean, lower-sodium turkey product.
解决方法:如果你喜欢吃猪肉,就选择瘦的、滋味足的肉块。如果你想要脂肪少些的,就选瘦的、低钠盐的火鸡食品。

11. You spoon on whole flaxseeds to get those heart-healthy omega-3 fats.
你舀了一整勺的亚麻籽,来获取那些有益于心脏健康的Ω-3脂肪酸。

Result:
The omega-3s are tourists—they don’t hang around.
结果:Ω-3就像旅游观光客一样——他们不会到处闲逛

Flaxseeds are trendy, marketed as something of a superfood. They represent an excellent way to add fiber and omega-3 fatty acids to baked goods, oatmeal, and cereal. And they’re a good alternative to fish and fish oils for vegetarians or vegans. But whole seeds tend to, um, pass right through.
亚麻籽是市场上流行的一种超级食品。它们意味着,你可以把纤维素和Ω-3脂肪酸直接加入到烤制食品、燕麦粥和其它谷物食品里——这是一个非常好的点子。对于吃素的人和绝对素食主义者来说,这是鱼和鱼油的绝佳替代品。但是整粒整粒的麻籽通常会直进直出、不被吸收。

What to do:
Grind the seeds; unlock the goodness.
解决方法:把籽粒碾碎;释放出营养物质

12. Mindful that many women under 50 are iron-deficient, you’re beefing up on iron-rich spinach.
为了当心女人在50岁以下就缺铁,所以多吃含铁丰富的菠菜。

Result:
You may get lots of nutrients—but not much iron.
结果:你也许得到了大量的营养物质——但并没有太多的铁。

Iron is important for energy because it helps deliver oxygen to every cell in your body, but it’s tricky to get because it comes in two types. Spinach and other plant sources are rich in what is called non-heme iron. Only about 2% to 20% of non-heme iron is absorbed, versus 15% to 35% of the heme iron found only in animal foods, specifically meat. Chicken liver has the most (13mg), followed by oysters (4.5mg), and beef (about 3mg).
铁对于能量非常重要,因为它帮助把氧传递到你身体的每一个细胞里,但是获取它需要点技巧,根据来源它有两种类型。菠菜和其它富含铁的植物里,含的是非血红素铁,只有大约2%至20%的非血红素的铁能被吸收。相对而言,在动物食品,尤其是肉类里的铁叫血红素铁,也只有15%到35%能被吸收。鸡肝里含的最多(13毫克),接下来是牡蛎(4.5毫克)和牛肉(3毫克)。

What to do: Vitamin C helps increase your body’s uptake of non-heme iron from foods. Pair iron-fortified breakfast cereal with a glass of OJ, or add grapefruit segments to that spinach salad.
解决方法:维生素C有助于食物中非血红素铁的吸收。吃含铁的强化早餐麦片时,搭配上一杯橙汁,或者在菠菜沙拉里加几片葡萄柚。

13. You make time for the gym, but you skip the pre-gym snack to save on calories.
挤出时间去健身房,为了减少卡路里省略了健身前的点心。

Result: Fewer calories can mean fewer calories burned—not the best equation.
结果:卡路里摄入得少也意味着卡路里燃烧得少——这不是最好的等式。

“Think of a preworkout snack as fueling, not filling,” says fitness expert Myatt Murphy, CSCS. “Aim for 100 to 200 calories, just enough to give you enough energy for exercise. Too much food, and your stomach will be working out at the same time to digest it all.”
“把锻炼前的零食当成燃料而不是来添饱肚子,”国际认可的体能专家、健身教练迈亚.墨菲说,“只需补充100到200卡路里的热量,只要能给自己足够的能量来锻炼就够了。如果太多,锻炼时你的胃同时也要工作来消化它们。”

Thirty minutes before exercise is the way to pace this. If you’re an early bird, a pre¬workout snack is essential—there’s no fuel in the tank. If you exercise mid-afternoon, you might need less.
在锻炼前的30分钟来调整进餐。如果你是一只早起的鸟儿,锻炼前的点心是必须的——因为油箱里没有燃料。如果你在下午3点左右锻炼,你就需要得少些。

What to eat: The best pre¬workout snacks provide a mix of carbs and protein—a banana and a handful of nuts or a slice of whole-grain bread with peanut butter.
该吃什么:最好的锻炼前的点心要能提供碳水化合物和蛋白质——一根香蕉和一把坚果或者一片涂有花生酱的全麦面包。

14. While cooking, you eyeball the oil, the salt, the sugar…
炒菜时,凭目测来加油、加盐、加糖......

Result: More calories or sodium than you might think
结果:加入了比你认为更多的卡路里或钠盐。

Cookbooks call for swirls, coatings, even “glugs” of olive oil. Others, more precise, call for a teaspoon or tablespoon—but it saves time to just guess. Our experiments with guesswork show that most people overpour common foods and liquids. The difference between a teaspoon and tablespoon of any oil is 80 calories and 9g of fat. The difference between a half-teaspoon and a teaspoon of salt is about 1,200 milligrams—half the daily recommendation.
烹饪书要求我们要打旋、加糖衣、甚至几“咕咚”(几大匙)橄榄油。其它的更精确,要求用一茶匙或者一大汤匙——但“估摸着”加会省时间。关于我们“估摸工作”的实验显示:大多数人都会过多地倒入了常见的食物和液体。一茶匙油和一大汤匙油的差别就是80卡路里和9克脂肪。半茶匙盐和一茶匙盐的差别就是1200毫克——占我们每日推荐量的一半。

What to do: Measure.
解决方法:测量

15. You do a free-hand pour at the breakfast table.
吃早餐时拿起就倒

Result:
You likely eat enough for 1.4 people.
结果:你可能吃了1.4个人的量

When we asked 100 people to show us their typical cereal pour, only 1 in 10 poured close to the recommended portions. For flake cereals, the average pour was 40% more than the 1-cup serving size. A full cup of skim milk in the bowl means you’ve added 40 more calories over the label standard. OJ, coffee cream, jam for toast: Breakfast requires lots of little portion calls, all made on a groggy brain.
我们让100个人来演示他们一贯倒麦片的份量,10人中只有1人倒的量接近推荐的份量。例如片状麦片,平均每人倒的份量超过标准的一杯分量的40%。碗里倒的满满一杯脱脂牛奶,就意味着你比标签说明上多加了40卡路里。桔子汁、咖啡鲜奶露、吐司上的果酱:这些早餐所需要的大量小份额的食物,都用我们尚未清醒的大脑完成了。

What to do: Read labels, then practice with a measuring cup, just to get an idea of the recommended serving. If you change cereals, start over.
解决方法:阅读标签说明,然后用量杯来练习,为的是明确推荐用量的“概念”。如果你换了麦片的种类,重新开始练习。

16. You’re careful when you buy your snacks, less so when you serve them.
买零食时很注意,但吃零食时就不那么注意了。

Result:
Healthy choice made, unhealthy quantity consumed
结果:做了健康的选择,吃了不健康的份量

Here’s the scenario: 94% fat-free microwave kettle corn saves you 6g of sat fat over the full-fat variety. But a typical, not-very-big bag contains 2 servings of about 3 cups each. Said handy bag often joins the eater on the couch for a movie, and soon it’s empty. It’s just human nature to eat what a container contains.
这有一个案例:94%脱脂的微波凯特爆米花,比全脂那种,让你少吃6克的饱和脂肪。但每个常规的、不太大的袋子能装大约3杯、两份份量的爆米花。就这样,方便袋经常跟着吃客们一起坐在沙发上看电影,很快就空了。把容器里的东西吃光是人的本性。

What to do: Choose that healthier snack—and eat it in measured amounts
解决方法:选择更健康的零食——按标准的量来吃。

17. You set the treadmill for a 300-calorie workout so you can eat a 300-calorie treat.
你在脚踏车上设置了300卡路里的运动量,于是你就能享用300卡路里的一餐了。

Result: More calories in than out
结果:卡路里进多出少

Cardio-equipment calorie counters are notorious for overestimating your calorie burn. The American Council on Exercise found some machines can be off by 25%. Machines that require you to punch in your weight, height, age, and gender give you a better estimate, but it’s still an estimate.
用来锻炼心血管设备的卡路里计数器名声可不好,因为它总是过高估计你体内热量的燃烧值。美国运动协会发现有些机器误差达25%。机器要求输入你的体重、身高、年龄、性别,给出一个较为准确的估算,但那终究还是估算。

What to do: If you’re calorie counting, invest in a heart-rate monitor, the kind that straps around your chest.
解决方法:如果你要做卡路里计数,花钱买一个那种缠在胸部的心率监测仪。

18. You sprinkle wheat germ on yogurt or muffins for crunchy, whole-grain goodness.
认为在酸奶上撒点麦牙精,或在小松糕上也撒点让它更有嚼头,就得到了全麦营养。

Result: A good nutrient boost, but not quite a whole-grain boost
结果:营养物质增强了,但并不是全麦营养增强

A whole grain is a seed with three parts: bran, endosperm, and germ. Wheat germ is only one component of a whole grain. Most of the fiber is in the bran, and the protein is in the endosperm. Wheat germ delivers a concentrated wallop of folate and vitamin E but doesn’t count as a whole grain.
整个谷物的种子有三部分:麸层(糠)、胚乳、和胚牙。小麦胚芽只是整个谷粒中的一个组成部分。大部分纤维素都在麸层、蛋白质含在胚乳里。小麦胚芽只是提供了浓缩的叶酸盐和维生素E,不算是全谷物营养。

What to do: Enjoy your germ, but not at the expense of other whole-grain choices.
解决方法:可以享用麦芽精,但不要以放弃选择其它全谷物食品为代价。

19. You stock up on fresh veggies on Sunday for your week of healthy eating.
为了健康饮食,在星期天储存上够一周吃的蔬菜。

Result: Come Thursday or Friday, nutrients have done a vanishing act.
结果:到了星期四或星期五,营养成分已经消失殆尽。

Some nutrients begin deteriorating in a fresh fruit or vegetable as soon as it’s harvested. In a week, green beans lose 77% of their vitamin C, spinach loses 50% of its folate, and prechopped cantaloupe, mango, and strawberry pieces lose 10% to 15% of their carotenoids.
新鲜水果或蔬菜里的一些营养成分,只要一收获就开始削弱。一周后,青豆角失去77%的维生素C,菠菜失去50%的叶酸,提前切开的哈密瓜、芒果和草莓片,会失去10%到15%的胡萝卜素。

What to do: It’s less convenient, but buy fresh produce a few times a week. Also, shop smart: Ask the produce manager which veggies are freshest. And lean on locally grown, which has a shorter transit time, or frozen off-season vegetables, which are flash-frozen within hours of harvesting, sometimes right in the field.
解决方法:不要贪图方便,一周多买几次新鲜的产品。并且要精明购物:问问产品经理哪种蔬菜是最新鲜的。倾向选择当地种的蔬菜,它运输时间短;或者买冷藏的淡季蔬菜,它们通常是在收获后几个小时内就被新鲜冷藏了,有时在田里就直接冷藏。

20. You buy 80/20 ground beef because it’s a good thing that only 20% of the calories come from fat.
购买80-20比例的牛肉馅,因为这是好事,来自肥肉的热量只有20%。

Result:
Way more fat in your burger or meat loaf than you thought.
结果:你做的汉堡或肉团里含的脂肪比你认为的要多。

The 80/20 percentage refers to the proportion of fat and protein in the grind, not the proportion of calories. Because fat contains more than twice the calories of protein, 20% of fat by weight contributes 72% of the total calories in a 3.5-ounce portion of raw ground beef, or about 180 of the 250 total calories.
那种80-20比例的肉是指碎肉中脂肪和蛋白质的比例,而不是卡路里的比例。因为肥肉里含的卡路里是蛋白质里含的2倍还多,所以,2两重的生牛肉馅里,重20%的肥肉就贡献了72%的卡路里,或者说全部250的卡路里它就贡献了180。

What to do: Buy a much leaner grind, such as 90/10, or ask for a lean whole cut like sirloin or brisket to be custom ground for you, which will be fresher anyway.
解决方法:多买瘦肉多的馅,如90-10比例的。或者整块都要瘦的,如:买用腰部肉或胸部肉专门定制的肉馅,这样还会更新鲜。

21. Big-crystal and flaky sea salts and kosher salts are bulkier, so you figure they also contain more sodium.
大粒的片状海盐和犹太粗盐个头大些,所以你估计它们也含有更多的钠。

Result: You miss out on an easy way to cut 20% of your added salt.
结果:你错失了一个简单的方法来减少你20%盐量的摄取

Kosher and table salt are chemically the same. But the larger grain size of kosher salt actually works to your advantage. Tiny grains of table salt tend to pack down in the spoon, leaving less air. Coarse flakes and crystals pile up like little, rough rocks, with more air between the pieces. That adds up to 20% sodium savings.
犹太粗盐和餐桌上的精盐化学成分是相同的。但是大粒的犹太粗盐实际上是对你利。细小颗粒的精盐常常堆挤在小勺上,几乎不含空气;而粗糙的片状盐和晶粒状盐堆起来,就像粗糙的小石头一样,颗粒之间存在大量的空气,加起来就少吃了20%的钠。

What to do: Have fun exploring the new sea and rock salts now on the market. Stronger flavor means you can use less, too.
解决方法:快乐地探寻市场上的海盐和石盐吧,味道越强的东西也意味着你用得越少。

22. Recipe calls for mincing the garlic. You stop at coarsely chopped.
食谱上要求切碎大蒜,你就终止了粗切。

Result: Fewer heart-healthy compounds in your Caesar.
结果:凯撒沙拉里有益心脏健康的物质减少了。

Minced garlic is more redolent than chopped because the smelly, heart-healthy thiosulfinates are created as the clove is cut. More cutting, more healthy compounds. Thiosulfinates prevent blood platelets from clumping, which helps keep arteries unobstructed.
切碎的大蒜比粗剁的大蒜香味更大,是因为蒜瓣切开时,生成了有味的、有益心脏健康的硫代亚磺酸酯。切得越碎,就产生越多的健康成分。硫代亚磺酸酯阻止的血小板凝结成块,保持动脉畅通。

Bonus tip: Chop garlic early in the prep phase, then set it aside for a few minutes (covered, so it won’t dry out) to give time for thiosulfinates to develop. Grate garlic on a Microplane, and you’ll release even more.
奖励贴士:在准备阶段早切大蒜,然后把它放置几分钟(盖上,防止干燥),让它有时间形成硫代亚磺酸酯。用擦刀把大蒜磨碎,会释放得更多。

原文阅读:http://www.cookinglight.com/eating-smart/nutrition-101/nutrition-questions-tips-00412000071626/page2.html

更多翻译详细信息请点击:http://www.trans1.cn
编辑:foodtrans

 
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