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多聚酶链式反应(PCR)Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) -生物

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A technique used to
amplify (or generate large amounts) of DNA for which the flanking sequences (those sequences directly on either side of the target DNA) are known. Short complementary DNA fragments (primers), which bind these flanking sequences are used by a special enzyme (Taq polymerase which is active at high temperatures) to copy the sequence in-between the primers. Cycles of heat to break apart the DNA strands, cooling to allow the primers to bind, and heating again to allow the enzyme to copy the intervening sequence, lead to a doubling of DNA at each cycle. The reactions are typically carried out on a regulated heating block, or PCR machine, and consist of 30-35 cycles of repeated amplification of all the DNA present. PCR is very sensitive, allowing a single molecule of target DNA to be amplified to microgram amounts of DNA. The target DNA can be of any origin, and so PCR is used to amplify DNA for use in research, cloning and forensics, each of which takes advantage of PCR’s extreme sensitivity

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