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核心提示:Think a little spanking won't do much harm to kids? New research says the effects can be long-lasting. Experts say popping kids can do more harm than good. A new study of more than 2,500 toddlers from low-income families found that spanking may have

    Think a little spanking won't do much harm to kids? New research says the effects can be long-lasting.

    Experts say "popping" kids can do more harm than good. A new study of more than 2,500 toddlers from low-income families found that spanking may have detrimental effects on behavior and mental development.

    Children who were spanked as 1-year-olds tended to behave more aggressively at age 2, and did not perform as well as other children on a test measuring thinking skills at age 3.

    Although these effects were somewhat small, the study is just the latest of many supporting psychologists' advice against spanking. Still, some experts say spanking has a time and place.

    The new study focused on children from low-income families because prior research suggested that spanking is more common among them, Berlin said. This may be because of the added stresses of parenting in a low-income situation, or because of a "cultural contagion" of behaviors among people. For example, in some families this study examined, a grandmother would spank a child, or neighbors would encourage physical discipline.

    About one-third of the 1-year-olds, and about half of the 2- and 3-year-olds, had been spanked in the previous week. At all three ages, African-American children were spanked significantly more frequently than those from white and Mexican-American families, and verbally punished more than the other children at ages 2 and 3.

    Previous research had also found that parents who spank are more likely to be younger, less educated, single, and/or depressed and stressed. Spanking is most commonly used among parents who were spanked themselves, who live in the South, and/or who identify themselves as conservative Christians. These parents also tend to believe in the effectiveness of spanking or believe the child is at fault in a given situation.

    More aggressive children are more likely to be spanked. On the other hand, children who were fussier at age 1 were more likely to be spanked and verbally punished.

    Some remain unconvinced that parents should never spank their children.

    The best use of spanking is in children between the ages of 2 and 6 when milder discipline tactics, such as time out, fail.

    That's why psychologists trained parents to use spanking that way for 25 years [from the] late '60s to mid-'90s. Now, the trend of advice is away from spanking, but there's not much hard evidence to support it.

    If the mother sees this fussiness as willful misbehavior and begins verbally punishing or spanking, rather than empathizing with the child, the child's behavior deteriorates into more tantrums and other frustrating behavior.

    Children are too young to understand when parenting behavior is wrong, even at the level of abuse. Physical violence gets passed down in families because the only parenting skills people know are the behaviors that they saw at home.

    Spanking, moreover, reinforces negative memories in the child's mind. Parents should aim instead to build "prominent, happy memories" of childhood for their kids.

    Regardless of income level, all parents can benefit from training classes.

















关键词: 打屁股 孩子 伤害
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