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食物储存:你最喜欢的食品应放在哪里?放多久?

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2014-07-11  来源:食品翻译中心  浏览次数:1346
核心提示:关于食物储存和食品安全,冰箱里该放什么?不该放什么?怎样防止食物过早腐烂?怎样避免食物浪费?等等。本文为你一一道来...
Part of treating ingredients correctly is knowing the best places to store them, and for how long. Let's tackle several storage myths and general confusions, starting with the counter and the pantry.
Food Storage 101: Where and How Long to Keep Your Favorite Foods

The Counter

Garlic, onions, and shallots: These alliums can be stored in a cool, dry place for up to two weeks. In the fridge, they will turn mealy and lose much of their flavor.

Tomatoes, potatoes, and winter squash: Although it may seem blasphemous to keep vegetables out of the refrigerator, trust us (and the USDA): these should be kept in a cool, dry place instead. (Plus, they make beautiful decorations.)

Bananas, citrus, and melons: Like the vegetables listed above, these fruits are best left on the counter. Once cut, they should be relegated to the refrigerator; otherwise, they will begin to dry out.

Bread: To slow down retrogradation—the process in which the starch molecules in bread crystallize—Cook's Illustrated says to store bread at room temperature for up to two days, either tightly-wrapped in foil or in a Ziploc bag to minimize moisture loss. After two days, wrap the bread in foil, place in a freezer bag, and store it in the freezer. And to revive crusty bread that's been stored for more than a day, just pop it into the oven for a few minutes.

Cakes and pies: According to pastry chef Stella Parks, both frosted and un-frosted whole cakes will last for about a week when tightly wrapped in plastic. Cut cakes have a shorter shelf life, around three to four days. Fruit pies can be kept on the countertop for up to two days; after this, move them to the refrigerator.

The Pantry

Dry goods: Generally, dry goods can be stored for up to six months (longer if you take good care of them), according to scientists at Colorado State University. Once a package is open, it’s best to move it to an air-tight container. This will ensure freshness and keep your pantry cleaner to boot.

Nuts: Store your nuts in air-tight containers if possible—these allow them to maintain the right level of moisture. For ultimate freshness, consider storing them with their shells on.

Spices: As the LA Times tells us, heat, light, air, and humidity are all spices’ enemies; your spices should live in your pantry. Whole spices last much longer than crushed or ground—these can be kept for up to two years, while ground spices should be refreshed every six months. Airtight tins or small spice jars are the best mode of storage.

Now, we're taking you to the refrigerator and freezer. Because not all parts are created equal, we'll show you where—and for how long—your goods will last.

The Refrigerator

Dairy products: According to Cooks Illustrated, milk, cream, yogurt, and other dairy products are best stored on the upper shelves of your refrigerator. The temperature there is the most constant, so they'll keep longer.

Eggs: Some refrigerators urge you to put your eggs on the inside of their door. Don’t give in— the door is the warmest part of the refrigerator. Eggs are happiest in their cartons on a shelf. Don't try to be European and store your eggs outside the refrigerator either: eggs in the United States, unlike in Europe, are washed before sale so they lose their protective outer layer.

Mushrooms: According to our friends at the Kitchn, commercial mushrooms (the ones you buy at the grocery store) are best left in their original packaging. Once you open it, wrap the whole package in plastic wrap. Wild mushrooms are best kept in a paper bag in your refrigerator’s crisper drawer.

Vegetables: All vegetables, minus the ones relegated to the countertop, are best stored in perforated plastic bags in your refrigerator’s crisper drawer. To make sure they don't decompose prematurely, keep them away from ethylene-producing fruits: apples, stone fruits, mangoes, passion fruit, pears, and kiwis.

Fruit: Fruit, with the exception of melons, citrus, and bananas, should be stored in the refrigerator in a separate drawer from the vegetables. Do not wash your fruit until you are ready to eat it; the excess water quickens decomposition. Although whole lemons are best left out on the counter, lemons that have been zested—but not juiced—can be wrapped in plastic wrap and stored in the refrigerator.

Cheese: According to Formaticum's blog, cheese should be wrapped in porous material for storage; cheese paper is the best, but waxed paper or parchment paper will also do the trick. Before storing, do a “face clean” of each cheese: scrape the surface with a non-serrated knife to remove any excess oil that may have “sweat out” at room temperature.

Each cheese should be wrapped separately and marked with the name and date of purchase. Avoid plastic wrap at all costs—as scientiest Harold McGee says in his book On Food and Cooking, the cheese can absorb the flavors and chemicals from the plastic. There’s nothing worse than an expensive piece of cheese that reeks of plastic or has gone bad, so storing it correctly is worth that extra effort. For a handy how-to, check out this article from Serious Eats.


Meat: Meat is best stored in the coldest section of the refrigerator: the bottom. Removing the retail packaging and rewrapping the meat in foil can extend its shelf life, but you should try to consume refrigerated meat within 4 days of purchase.

Fish: Before refrigerating a piece of fish, dry it completely and wrap it in waxed paper. It will usually keep in the coldest part of your fridge for up to two days, but make sure to check the smell before you cook it. If it smells too fishy or has an off color, throw it out. For bonus points: store wrapped fish on a bed of ice (heaped in a bowl or shallow dish) in the fridge, and change as needed, à la Cooks Illustrated

Pies: According to Betty Crocker, pies containing eggs (custard or cream-based pies) should be stored loosely covered in the refrigerator.

Yeast: While yeast can last in the pantry, it's best stored in the refrigerator (or freezer, for long-term). Once exposed to heat and light, it's easily killed.

Herbs: According to FOOD52-er RobertaJ on this Hotline thread, basil, parsley, cilantro, and other leafy, water-based herbs should be treated like flowers: take off any twisty ties, trim a small amount off the stem ends, and plop the bunch into a tall glass of water. Cover the herbs loosely with a plastic bag, and they’ll stay fresh for at least a week. Hardier, oil-based herbs like thyme and rosemary can be wrapped in a damp paper towel and layered into plastic bags. Hotline MVP anitalectric has a special tip for basil: wash, dry, and stem the basil when you get home from the market, and keep the leaves in a rolled-down plastic bag. They’ll stay fresh for five days.

The Freezer

Meat: Freezing uncooked meat in its original packaging is the best way to keep it for long periods of time. According to the USDA, the maximum recommended freezer storage time for beef and lamb is six months; for veal, pork, and poultry, four months; and for seasoned sausage, two months.

Fish: Fish can last in the freezer, according to the Perdue University Center for Animal Sciences, for up to 6 months. Fattier fish, however, should not be frozen for over three months. For the best results, use the ice-glaze method provided by the National Center for Home Food Preservation: place the unwrapped fish in the freezer until completely frozen, dip the fish in near-freezing ice water, and place it back in the freezer to harden. Continue with this process until a uniform cover of ice is formed, then place the fish in a freezer bag for storage. As an alternative, according to the FDA you can simply wrap your fish tightly in plastic, foil, or moisture-proof paper before freezing.

Pies and pie crusts: You can freeze crusts and whole pies, baked or unbaked. According to Betty Crocker, an unbaked crust will keep for two months; an unbaked pie for three months; and a baked crust or pie for four months.

Cake: Un-cut, un-frosted cakes can be wrapped first in plastic wrap, then tin foil, and stored in the freezer for several months. To thaw, let the rounds spend a night in the refrigerator; cake needs to thaw slowly so that it can reabsorb its moisture.

Stock: Freeze stock in ice cube trays or muffin tins, then store the cubes/chunks in a freezer bag. That way, you can access a small amount of stock whenever a recipe calls for it. To save even more space, reduce the stock by 50 percent before you freeze it, then add water when you defrost it. According to Martha Stewart Living, frozen stock will last up to two months. You can also store leftover wine in the same manner and use as needed.

Coffee: Cook's Illustrated says the freezer is the best place to store ground coffee beans; they keep longer, and will retain their well-rounded, roasted flavor.

Citrus Zest: Here's a tip from the smart folks at The Kitchn: any time you use a lemon, lime, grapefruit, or orange, take a few minutes to zest it. You can store the zest in the freezer in plastic bags for each fruit—or if you’re feeling fancy, in individual, plastic-wrapped portions.

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对于香料和调味剂,一定要选择正确的地方来放置,放置时间也要注意。我们先要打破几个错误的存放要点和普遍做法,先从厨房里的灶台和食品储存柜说起。

灶台

大蒜和葱类:这些葱蒜类食材应存放在干燥低温处最多两周。若置于冰箱,它们中的水分和味道都会流失。

西红柿、马铃薯和笋瓜:虽然人们普遍将它们放在冰箱里,但我们和USDA(美国农业部有机标准认证)不会骗人:这些同样也应存放在干燥低温处而不是冰箱里。(顺便提一句,这些同样也能成为家居装饰佳品。)

香蕉,柑橘和甜瓜:这些的存放办法和之前提过的蔬菜存放法差不多,水果最好是置于灶台边。不过,一旦切开水果,就要把他们放到第二选择冰箱里,不然很快会干掉。

面包类:若想持续保鲜(即延缓面包中的淀粉成分结晶化),厨子灵感网站(Cook‘s Illustrated,美食烹饪网站)建议在用箔纸密封或放在塑胶袋中减少水分流失,室温中最多保存两天。若是生产的面包已经过了两天,将其用箔纸密封,放在冷藏袋中装在冷藏柜。若想让冷藏超过一天的面包回复香脆口感,只要将其放在微波炉中几分钟即可搞定!

蛋糕和派:根据糕点名店Stella Parks的说法,裹糖粉和不裹糖粉的整块蛋糕若密封在食品袋中,能保存约一周时间。已经切开的蛋糕的储存时间相对较短,大概是三到四天。水果派放在灶台上最多能保存两天,两天后必须将其放倒冰箱里。

食品储藏柜

谷物类:科罗拉多州立大学的科学家们发现,一般来说,谷物最多能保存六个月,若你保存得好甚至更长时间。一旦打开包装袋,最好把它们放在密封食品罐里,这样能保证其新鲜并不会弄脏地板。

坚果类:尽量将坚果类食品放在密封食物罐中,这样能让食物保持其水分含量。若想完全保留其新鲜口味,不妨保留它们的外壳再进行储存。

香料:《洛杉矶时报》编辑告诉我们,热,光,空气和潮湿是储存香料的大敌。香料应该放在食品储藏柜里。完整未切的香料比起以切碎的或长在地里的能保存更久,长达两年时间,而长在地里的香料每六个月都要进行补给。存放香料最好的是罐子或香料盒。

接下来,我们将说说冰箱和冷藏柜。可能大家家里电器的情况都不一样,我们将讲解食物应放在冰箱的哪个位置以及存放时间。

冰箱冷藏室

奶制品:厨子灵感网站认为,牛奶、奶油、酸奶和其它奶制品最好放在冰箱的偏上夹层。这个位置的温度最稳定,因而奶制品能保存更久。

蛋:一些冰箱厂家建议将鸡蛋放在冰箱门内层,千万不要这样做!冰箱门是整个冰箱温度最高的部分。对于鸡蛋来说,最好的储存办法是放在鸡蛋纸担里放在架子上。别学欧洲人,把鸡蛋放在冰箱外面吧!和欧洲人不同美国人在出售前会先洗一洗,这让鸡蛋失去了外面的保护层。

蘑菇:同样来自厨子灵感网站的朋友告诉我们,从百货店买回的蘑菇最好保留其原来的包装。一旦打开包装,要将蘑菇和原包装一起密封在塑料食品袋中。野生蘑菇最好装进纸袋里并放入干燥的抽屉存放。

蔬菜:所有的蔬菜,除了那些快要腐烂被放在灶台上的那些,最好都放在扎了孔的塑料袋中并置于冰箱的屉子里。为防止蔬菜过早腐烂,要将其和易释放乙烯的水果分开,比如苹果,核果类,芒果,鸡蛋果,梨,猕猴桃等。

水果:除去甜瓜、柑橘和香蕉外,各类水果应该放在冰箱中一个独立的屉子里,与蔬菜分开。不要过早冲洗水果,而是在吃之前才这么做,因为多余的水分残余会加速水果腐变。尽管整个的柠檬最好是放在灶台上,但已经削皮或榨过汁的柠檬应放在保鲜袋密封并放入冰箱。

奶酪:根据Formaticum网站(专业的奶酪网站)的建议,奶酪应密封在透气的材质中进行储存,奶酪纸是最佳选择。不过,蜡纸或羊皮纸也能达到同样效果。在存放奶酪前,要清理干净每一块奶酪的表面:用无锯齿的小刀刮去奶酪表面所有在室温下可能冒出的多余油脂。

每块奶酪应分开密封保存并标记其名称和购买日期。根据科学家哈洛德‧马基在《食物与厨艺》一书中所提到的,不管什么价位的塑料袋,都不能用来装奶酪,因为奶酪会吸收塑料袋的气味和化学成分。没有什么事情比一块昂贵却散发塑料恶臭或已经腐烂的奶酪更糟糕了。所以,我们很值得多花些心力正确存储这些食物。如何采用更方便的妙招呢,请参考“吃可不是小事儿”网站(美食网站)的原文。

肉类:肉最好存放在冰箱里温度最低的位置,即底部。把包肉的零售包装去掉,重新用箔片密封包好,这样能延长其保质期。但即便如此,也应尽量在肉存放冰箱四天内吃完。

鱼类:在把一条鱼放入冰箱前,彻彻底底晾干并用蜡纸密封好。通常情况下鱼放在冰箱温度最低的位置最多保存两天,但要注意在烹饪前问一问鱼有没有变馊。若闻起来太腥或颜色不鲜亮了,果断扔掉。还有一些来自“厨子灵感”的贴心提示:将密封包好的与放在碎冰上(碎冰可放在容器中,适用于浅水鱼等)存入冰箱,在需要时取出。

派:根据贝蒂克罗克食谱网站的建议,含有蛋(蛋羹和奶油派等)的派应稍稍松散地盖住放于冰箱里。

酵母:虽然酵母也能储存在食品储藏柜,但最佳方法是存放在冰箱中(或冷冻柜里,长期储存)。一旦遇上高温或光,它极容易变质。

草本类:FOOD52网站成员罗伯特认为,放置紫苏、西芹、香菜和其它多叶多汁的草本植物应像放置鲜花一样,去掉多余缠绕的部分,修建一些茎干末端,然后将它们扑通一声放在装水的细长瓶子中。松松地将它们用塑料袋盖住,这样它们至少能保鲜一周。而耐寒、油性草本植物,比如百里香和迷迭香则可以用微微润湿的纸巾包好,然后一层层放进塑料袋里。MVP热线对于存放紫苏有一个妙招:洗净,晒干,并在买回家后好好密封起来,把叶子包在压平的塑料袋中。这样能把它保存五天。

冷冻柜

肉类:肉类最好的保鲜办法是将买回的肉连原有包装一原封不动地放进冷冻柜,这样能保鲜很久。USDA(美国农业部有机标准认证)建议,牛羊肉在冷冻柜的最长保质期为六个月;牛排、猪肉、家禽生肉可存四个月;干腊肉可存放两个月。

鱼:珀杜大学动物科学中心建议,鱼最多可存放在冷冻柜内半年,其中脂肪含量高的鱼肉最好不要超过三个月。国家家庭食物保鲜中心教给我们一个绝佳的办法——给鱼穿上“冰衣”——将去下包装袋的鱼放到冷冻柜直到完全冰冻,将它放到几乎快冻住的冰水中,再把鱼放回冷冻柜,一直重复这个过程,直到鱼渐渐穿上一件厚厚的冰制服,最后将其放在冷冻柜保存。还有一个类似的办法,根据美国食品药品管理局的建议,只要用塑料膜、箔片或沾湿的纸将鱼紧紧包住再放进冷冻柜即可。

派和硬面包:不管是烘焙过与否,你都可以直接将硬面包和一整块派放入冷冻柜。根据贝蒂·克罗克糕点屋的经验,未烘焙的硬面包能用此方法保存两个月,未烘焙的派则能保存三个月。而烤过的硬面包和派则可以放四个月之久。

蛋糕:未切开、未撒糖霜的蛋糕应先用塑料膜包好,再放到箔纸盒里,存放到冷冻柜,时间可长达好几个月。若要解冻,先移放到冷藏室一个晚上,因为慢慢解冻的蛋糕才能回复其水润口感。

冷藏柜存放量:空出一些位置放置冰块托盘或小松糕罐子,然后他们放在冷冻袋子里。通过这种做法,不论何时你的食谱需要一些冷藏柜小空间,都没有问题。若想获得更多空间,在冷冻食物时先将它们的量减少一半,然后再解冻时慢慢加水进去。玛萨斯图尔特式生活(一家表现娱乐方式和家庭装扮的杂志和电视节目)建议,放在冷冻柜的东西最多只能存放两个月。你也能将剩余的酒放进去,需要时再拿出来。

咖啡:厨子灵感网站告诉我们,冷冻柜用来存放磨碎的咖啡豆再好不过了,时间更久,更能全方位保持其烘焙香味。

柑橘汁:厨房网站(美食及烹饪网站)教给我们一个妙招,若你想使用柠檬、酸橙、葡萄柚、桔子等材料,最好先将它们榨汁。你可以将不同的果汁水分别放在保鲜袋里置于冰冻柜中。当然,若你喜欢,也能定量放在不同塑料袋中密封起来。
编辑:foodtrans

 
关键词: 食物储藏
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