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女性健康:女性应避免的五项运动 以及其替代运动

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核心提示:If you hate sit-ups, you're in luck. They're one of the top-five exercises women should completely avoid, according to personal trainer Kristal Richardson. While women can tackle the same workouts as men, their joints are generally looser than a man

    If you hate sit-ups, you're in luck. They're one of the top-five exercises women should completely avoid, according to personal trainer Kristal Richardson.

    While women can tackle the same workouts as men, their joints are generally looser than a man's and "poor form and too much weight can lead to stiff joints or even damage." Here are five exercises that Richardson says women should avoid.

    Don't do straight leg push-ups.Push-ups often are the culprit of neck, lower back, elbow and shoulder pain.

    Instead try:Push-ups on your knees. Focus on where you place your hands to make sure you're working the chest. You can also try the dumbbell bench press instead for toning the chest and shoulders. Lie flat on your back and, with arms straight up and dumbbells in hand, slowly lower the arms to just past a 90-degree angle or until you feel a slight stretch in your chest. Repeat three sets of 10 reps.

    Don't do sit-ups. If you lock your hands behind your head, it can cause a torque in the spine, which ultimately leads to neck pain, she says. Remember sit-ups are different from "crunches." When you do a sit-up, you bring your torso up 90 degrees, so your back is off the floor. A crunch has a limited range of motion; you raise your torso about 45 degrees and your lower back will still be on the floor.

    Instead try:Bicycle crunches, which are considered one of the most effective abdominal workouts. Lie on your back, place your hands next to your ears and start a pedaling motion with your legs, lifting the left shoulder to the right knee and vice versa. Try three sets of 10.

    Don't do weighted squats.Squats with a weight bar on your back build serious bulk in the rear end and upper thighs, places women are most likely looking to trim down, said Richardson.

    Instead try:Lunges, which "don't place nearly as much stress on the lower back and distribute the workout throughout the entire leg," she said. Take a long, even stride forward with one leg. Be sure to keep your knee at a 90-degree angle with your foot for support. If you have bad knees, try doing a reverse lunge by stepping backward.

    Don't do behind-the-neck shoulder presses.This exercise strains the shoulders, both on the way down and up. The little muscles on the top of your shoulders work too hard and become inflamed, causing "weight lifter's shoulder," she said.

    Instead try:Seated shoulder presses. "Hold a pair of dumbbells overhead with your arms straight and palms facing each other," she said. "Then, bend your right elbow and lower your right arm, moving your elbow out to the side until your upper arm is parallel with the floor." Press back up and repeat with your right arm for three sets of 12 reps with each arm.

    Don't do standing dead lifts.Since women are typically more flexible than men and can bend down farther, it puts even greater stress on their legs and lower back. It also results in bulky back, leg and rear-end muscles.

    Instead try:Leg kick-backs. Facing a wall, stabilize yourself with your arms and kick your right leg back as far as you can. Repeat 10 times, then do the same with your left leg. Try two sets.

    个人健身教练列出五项女性应该避免的运动和其替代运动。

    如果你讨厌仰卧起坐,那么你就走运了。根据个人健身教练克里斯塔尔·理查森的说法,仰卧起坐是女性应该彻底避免的头五项运动之一。

    尽管女性能应付和男性一样的训练强度,但她们的关节通常会比男性的松弛,并且不当的动作和太多的负荷会导致强直性关节。以下是理查森认为女性应该避免的五项运动。

    不要做直腿俯卧撑。俯卧撑经常会引起脖子、下背、肘部和肩部的疼痛。

    替代的运动:跪着做俯卧撑。注意你放手的地方,确定你是放在胸膛上。为了使你的胸腔和肩部更强健,你也可以尝试哑铃台式压床。即你的背部平躺下来,然后,手里拿着哑铃,手臂直竖,慢慢地放下手臂,但是只要超过90度就行,(维持这个姿势)直到你感觉到胸膛有点拉紧。重复做三组,每组动作做10次。

    不要做仰卧起坐。理查森说,如果你把你的手固定在脑袋后面,这可以引起脊椎的扭转,最终会导致脖子疼痛。记住仰卧起坐不同于"紧缩".当你做仰卧起坐时,你会带动你的上半身上升90度,所以你的背会离开地板。而紧缩只是有个有限的关节活动度;你上半身上升约45度,然后你的腰部还在地板上。

    替代的运动:自行车紧缩被认为是最有效的腹部训练之一。你的背部平躺下来,把你的手放在你耳朵附近,然后用你的腿开始一个踩踏板的动作,并且提起左肩与右膝相接,反之亦然(提高右肩与左膝接触).做三组,每组十次。

    不要做蹲举。理查森说,蹲坐着时在背上举个重锤杆,这样会在臀部和大腿上长明显的肉块,但这些地方都是女性更希望能瘦下来的。

    替代的运动:理查森说:"弓箭步,它不用在腰部使太大的力气,也能分发锻炼到整个大腿。"用一条腿迈出一个往前的大步。要确定用你的脚去支撑你的膝盖,并使膝盖维持在90度。如果你的膝盖不好,可以试着倒着走来做一个倒退的弓箭步。

    不要做颈后肩膊推举。她说:"这个训练会拉紧肩部,既向下拉紧又向上拉紧。你肩膀上部的小肌肉运动强度太大了,会发炎的,并且引起"举重肩膀"(即负荷过重)."

    替代的运动:静坐肩上推。"用你的手臂垂直地把一对哑铃高举过头,双掌互相对着",她说,"然后弯下你的右肘,放下你的右臂,往外移动你的肘,直到你的上臂和地板平行。"重复地推,并用你的右臂重做。每个手臂做三组,每组12次。

    不要做站立静止的举重。因为女性向来比男性更灵活,可以进一步地俯身,这就更加重了在他们大腿和腰部上的压力。这也会导致笨重的背部、大腿和屁股肌肉。

    替代的运动:向后踢腿。面对着一面墙,用你的手臂固定你自己,然后尽可能远地往后踢你的右腿。重复10次,然后用你的左腿做同样的动作。做两组。

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关键词: 女性 健康 运动
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