VIP标识 上网做生意,首选VIP会员| 设为首页| 加入桌面| | 手机版| 无图版| RSS订阅
食品伙伴网,关注食品安全,探讨食品技术
 
当前位置: 首页 » 专业英语 » 行业相关 » 正文

WHO公布新发现疾病的命名原则

放大字体  缩小字体 发布日期:2015-08-06  来源:食品翻译中心  浏览次数:792
核心提示:根据这项原则,新发现的疾病将不再允许以人物、地点、动物、食物和职业等命名,必须以更为中性的词汇代替。
世界卫生组织近日公布命名新发现的人类疾病的指导原则。根据这项原则,新发现的疾病将不再允许以人物、地点、动物、食物和职业等命名,必须以更为中性的词汇代替。

许多熟知的疾病都是以人名、地名、动物名等来命名,例如近期令人闻之色变的埃博拉出血热就是以非洲刚果民主共和国的埃博拉河来命名。这样的命名方式简便且易于记忆,然而往往也会造成不必要的恐慌或者歧视。例如近期发现的一种由冠状病毒引发的呼吸道疾病被冠以” 中东呼吸综合症”的名称,这让一些阿拉伯国家颇为不快。为了避免这些问题,世界卫生组织要求各国研究人员和相关政府机构今后命名新发现的人类疾病时避免使用人名、地名、动物名、职业名、种族名等,代之以更为中性的名称,例如”呼吸道疾病“等。世界卫生组织同时建议命名时应避免使用”未知“、”致死性“等容易造成恐慌的词汇。

参与起草这项命名规则的一位世界卫生组织高级官员称,专家们在起草过程中曾经考虑过其他的方案,例如用希腊神话中的人物命名疾病,或者像命名飓风那样使用西方国家的常见姓名,最后还是因为担心这些命名方式带来的不必要的负面影响而放弃。许多研究人员虽然承认现有命名方式的弊端,但对新的命名规则带来的改进持怀疑态度。他们认为新的命名规则会使得疾病名称变得冗长而难以记忆。但也有一些研究人员认为,新的命名规则虽然施加了很多限制,但仍留下一定的自由发挥的空间,例如或许可以用数字命名新发现的疾病。



The World Health Organization (WHO) mostly works to reduce the physical toll of disease. But last week it turned to another kind of harm: the insult and stigma inflicted by diseases named for people, places, and animals. Among the existing monikers that its new guidelines “for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases” would discourage: Ebola, swine flu, Rift Valley Fever, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and monkey pox. Instead, WHO says researchers, health officials, and journalists should use more neutral, generic terms, such as severe respiratory disease or novel neurologic syndrome.

Many scientists agree that disease names can be problematic, but they aren’t sure the new rulebook is necessarily an improvement. “It will certainly lead to boring names and a lot of confusion,” predicts Linfa Wang, an expert on emerging infectious diseases at the Australian Animal Health Laboratory in Geelong. “You should not take political correctness so far that in the end no one is able to distinguish these diseases,” says Christian Drosten, a virologist at the University of Bonn, Germany.

Naming diseases has long been a fraught process. Badly chosen names can stigmatize people, as did gay-related immune deficiency, an early name for AIDS. They can also lead to confusion and hurt tourism and trade. The so-called swine flu, for instance, is not transmitted by pigs, but some countries still banned pork imports or slaughtered pigs after a 2009 outbreak. More recently, some Arab countries were unhappy that a new disease caused by a coronavirus was dubbed Middle East respiratory syndrome.

Although “it’s usually scientists who come up with these names … the WHO gets the diplomatic pressure” if someone takes offense, Drosten says. The new guidelines, released 8 May, aim to smooth the process. “The WHO had to do something to take itself out of the firing line,” Drosten says.

Given that news of a new pathogen often spreads quickly, “it is important that an appropriate disease name is assigned by those who first report” the disease, WHO's guidance notes. Following the guidelines, it adds, could “minimize unnecessary negative impact of disease names on trade, travel, tourism or animal welfare, and avoid causing offence to any cultural, social, national, regional, professional or ethnic groups.”

To that end, new disease names should not include geographic locations; the names of people, occupations, animals, or food; or “terms that incite undue fear” (such as unknown, fatal, and epidemic). Instead, the names should use generic descriptions of symptoms (respiratory disease or watery diarrhea) and specific terms describing patients, epidemiology or the environment (juvenile, maternal, seasonal, summer, coastal), as well as pathogen names and arbitrary identifiers (alpha, beta, 1, 2, 3).

The group that came up with these recommendations met “more than a few times” over the course of a year, says Kazuaki Miyagishima, director for food safety, zoonoses, and foodborne diseases at WHO, and a member of the panel. Among the ideas they discussed: naming diseases after Greek gods, using a system similar to the one used to name comets or alternating male and female names as is done with hurricanes.”But while naming a hurricane Katrina may not offend people, if we do it for a disease, it’s not just a hurricane for 1 week. It will make its way into the history of human suffering," Miyagishima says.

The guide is well intentioned, but goes too far, says Ian Lipkin, a virologist at Columbia University. “I don’t see how it will be helpful to eliminate names like monkey pox that provide insights into natural hosts and potential sources of infection,” he says.

It could also become harder to easily distinguish diseases. For instance, under the new rules, Marburg disease (named after a city in Germany) might have been called filovirus-associated haemorrhagic fever 1, while Ebola (named after a river) might have been filovirus-associated haemorrhagic fever 2. Such bland names “lose something that is more than just quaint,” says Howard Markel, a medical historian at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Drosten adds that geographic names are sometimes justified. It was clear that MERS, for example, was associated with the Middle East. “Would it have been better if we had named it novel betacoronavirus clade C, type 1?” he asks.

The new rules make for more difficult names, Miyagishima admits. “But we think we have left a fairly large area for freedom. We do not want to kill the creativity of researchers completely.”

Linfa Wang knows all about the difficulty of naming diseases. Two decades ago, he named a virus and the disease it causes after Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane, Australia; he still gets angry calls from residents complaining that the name has hurt property values. These days his strategy is to “go small.” Recently, he named a new henipavirus isolated in a neighborhood called Cedar Grove simply Cedar virus.

Virologists encountered other sensitivities with Norwalk virus, named for a city in Ohio. The pathogen is the only species in the genus Norovirus and usually that name is used. In 2011, however, a Japanese individual asked for a change because many people in Japan carry the surname Noro. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses recommended using "Norwalk virus” instead.

Acronyms are another good solution, says Ab Osterhaus, a virologist at Erasmus MC in Rotterdam, because they keep names short (another WHO recommendation) and people often forget what the letters stand for. But even acronyms can cause controversy. In 2003, WHO officials coined SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) to describe a novel pneumonia spreading in Asia, partly to avoid a name like “Chinese flu.” SARS did not go down well in Hong Kong, however, which is officially known as Hong Kong SAR, for special administrative region.

Giving new diseases a number may be the only way to avoid such issues, researchers say. There is precedent. Growing up in China in the late 1960s, Wang remembers that diseases had digits. “I was really scared of number 5 disease,” he recalls. “I don’t know why, you just really did not want to get disease number 5.”

Discovered a disease? WHO has new rules for avoiding offensive names | Science/AAAS | News
http://news.sciencemag.org/health/2015/05/discovered-disease-who-has-new-rules-avoiding-offensive-names
编辑:foodtrans

 
关键词: 疾病 命名
[ 网刊订阅 ]  [ 专业英语搜索 ]  [ ]  [ 告诉好友 ]  [ 打印本文 ]  [ 关闭窗口 ] [ 返回顶部 ]

 
0条 [查看全部]  相关评论

 
推荐图文
推荐专业英语
点击排行